Published Research

The purposes of the abstracts and the short brief discussions are a way of helping the Gonstead clinician keep abreast of recent literature. Click on an abstract title to read its contents. This page is updated regularly. Please check back for new titles.

A Profession Seeking Clinical Competency

ABSTRACT: The Palmer School of Chiropractic was in a clinical conundrum after the death of its iconoclastic leader B.J. Palmer. The school had left full-spine chiropractic in the 1930s when Palmer perpetuated his upper-cervical Hole-In-One Technique. In 1961, the Gonstead Chiropractic Technique resurrected at the flagship school and became the cornerstone of the school’s technique curriculum.… Continue Reading »

Another Chiropractic Dinosaur

Ford PA. Another Chiropractic Dinosaur. Journal of Canadian Chiropractors’ Association. September 2005; 49(3):146-149. COMMENTS: While the author was taking a course in medical acupuncture, a chiropractic student also taking the course asked him: “…why on earth would anyone want to look at bones!” He said that “he was taken aback that the question would even… Continue Reading »

An Assessment of the ‘Evidence’ of Evidence-Based Medicine

Rosner AL. An Assessment of the ‘Evidence’ of Evidence-Based Medicine. Canadian Chiropractor October 2005; 10(6):16-18. COMMENTS: The current buzzword in health care and health care-related issues is “evidence-based medicine.” Is it really meaningful? Is standard allopathic medicine more “evidence-based” than other forms of care like chiropractic? The reality is that allopathic medicine typically uses drugs and… Continue Reading »

Baby-Walkers: An Avoidable Source of Hazard

Sabir H, Mayatepek E, Schaper J, Tibussik D. Baby-Walkers: An Avoidable Source of Hazard. Lancet 5 December 2008; 372(9654):2000. COMMENTS: In the Gonstead and other seminars, we have always heard about how baby walkers prevent proper neurological development that comes from crawling. There is a more immediate hazard, injuries. They are banned in Canada. This is… Continue Reading »

Basic Science Research Related to Chiropractic Spinal Adjusting

Cramer G, et al. Basic Science Research Related to Chiropractic Spinal Adjusting: The State of the Art and Recommendations Revisited. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics November/December 2006; 29(9):726-761. ABSTRACT: Objective: The objectives of this white paper are to review and summarize the basic science literature relevant to spinal fixation (subluxation) and spinal adjusting procedures… Continue Reading »

Chiropractic Manipulation in the Treatment of Acute Back Pain

Santilli V, et al. Chiropractic Manipulation in the Treatment of Acute Back Pain and Sciatica with Disc Protrusion: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Active and Simulated Spinal Manipulation. The Spine Journal March-April 2006; 6(2):131-137. ABSTRACT: Background Context: Acute back pain and sciatica are major sources of disability. many medical interventions are available, including manipulations, with… Continue Reading »

Classification of the Normal Variation in the Sagittal Alignment

Roussouly P, Gollogy S, Berthonnaud E, et al. Classification of the Normal Variation in the Sagittal Alignment of the Human Lumbar Spine and Pelvis in the Standing Position. Spine 1 February 2005; 30(3): 346-353. As with the other papers, this study used standing, full spine radiographs.“Specific changes in sagittal alignment and the characteristics of the… Continue Reading »

Clicks and Clunks With Low Back Pain

(By Steven T. Tanaka, DC – from the February 2010 “The Scope”) Sweetman BJ. Clicks and Clunks With Low Back Pain: What Do They Mean? A LIterature Review. International Musculoskeletal Medicine April 2009; 31(2):25-28. ABSTRACT: Aim: To review knowledge about noises arising from the joints of the back, which can be felt or heard by back… Continue Reading »

Combined Effects of Exercise and Foods in Preventing Neurological Cognitive Disorder

(From the March issue of The “G”Note By Steven T. Tanaka, DC) Gomez-Pinilla F. The Combined Effects of Exercise and Foods in Preventing Neurological Cognitive Disorder. Preventive Medicine 2011; 52:s75-s80. ABSTRACT: Objective: Exercise and select diets have important influences on health and plasticity of the nervous system, and the molecular mechanisms involved with these actions… Continue Reading »

Comment: Are Lipid-Lowering Guidelines Evidence-Based

Abramson J, Wright J. Comment: Are Lipid-Lowering Guidelines Evidence-Based? The Lancet 20 January 2007 369:169.  COMMENTS: According to the authors, the answer to the question posed by the title is: in many cases, no. They cite that the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program recommended that those who do not have evidence of but are thought to… Continue Reading »

Degenerated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc is Innervated Primarily by Peptide-Containing Sensory Nerve Fibers

Ozawa T, et al. The Degenerated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc is Innervated Primarily by Peptide-Containing Sensory Nerve Fibers in Humans. Spine 1 October 2006; 31(21):2418-2422. ABSTRACT: Study Design: Immunohistochemical study of the sensory innervation of the human lumbar intervertebral disc. Objective: To determine the type of sensory fibers innervating human degenerated lumbar intervertebral discs. Summary of Background… Continue Reading »

Doctor, Will That X-ray Harm My Unborn Child

Ratnapalan S, Bentur Y, Koren G. “Doctor, Will That X-ray Harm My Unborn Child?” Canadian Medical Association Journal 2 December 2008; 179(12):1293-1296. ABSTRACT: Exposure to ionizing radiation can be a source of anxiety for many pregnant women and their health care providers. An awareness of the radiation doses delivered by different techniques and the acceptable exposure… Continue Reading »

Effects of Exercise and Diet on Chronic Disease

Roberts CK, Barnard RJ. Effects of Exercise and Diet on Chronic Disease. Journal of Applied Physiology  January 2005; 98(1):3-30. ABSTRACT: Currently, modern chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer, are the leading killers in Westernized society and are increasing rampantly in developing nations. In fact, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are now… Continue Reading »

Effects of High-Heeled Shoes on Lumbar Lordosis

(From the November 2010 “The Scope” – By Steven T. Tanaka, DC) Russell BS. The Effects of High-Heeled Shoes on Lumbar Lordosis: A Narrative Review and Discussion of the Disconnect Between Internet Content and Peer-Reviewed Literature. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 2010; 9:pre-publication e-article. ABSTRACT: Objectives: Some women complain of low back pain that they believe is… Continue Reading »

Effect of High-Velocity Low-Amplitude Manipulation on Cervical Spine Muscle Strength

Metcalfe S, et al. Effect of High-Velocity Low-Amplitude Manipulation on Cervical Spine Muscle Strength: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 2006; 14(3):152-158. ABSTRACT: Clinical observation suggests that side-to-side differences in anterolateral neck flexor strength may be resolved by appropriate high-velocity low-amplitude manipulation of a dysfunctional upper cervical segment. We examined 67 patients… Continue Reading »

The Effect of Walking on Fitness, Fatness and Resting Blood Pressure

By Steven Tanaka, DC Murphy MH, et al. The Effect of Walking on Fitness, Fatness and Resting Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Preventive Medicine May 2007; 44(5):377-385. ABSTRACT:Objective: The purpose of this review was to perform a meta-analysis on walking intervention studies in order to quantify the magnitude and direction of walking-induced changes… Continue Reading »

Elastic Fiber Network of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc

(From the July 2009 “The Scope” By: Steven T. Tanaka, DC) Smith LJ, Fazzalari NL. The Elastic Fiber Network of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc. European Spine Journal April 2009; 18(4):439-448. ABSTRACT: Elastic fibres are critical constituents of dynamic biological structures that functionally require elasticity and resilience. The network of elastic fibres in the annulus fibrosus… Continue Reading »

Electromagnetic Vaccination

(From the July 2012 issue of “The Scope” – by Steven T. Tanaka, DC) Liboff AR. Electromagnetic Vaccination. Medical Hypotheses 2012 (in press). ABSTRACT: Numerous reports indicate robust mitogenic responses in human lymphoctyes to low frequency electromagnetic fields. We hypothesize that these observations reflect a wider platform for immune capability than presently recognized, whereby weak… Continue Reading »

Evidence-Based Care That Includes Chiropractic Manipulation More Effective Than Usual Medical Care

Evidence-Based Care That Includes Chiropractic Manipulation More Effective Than Usual Medical Care. The BackLetter January 2008; 23(1):3. COMMENTS: A Canadian randomized controlled trial study – Chiropractic Hospital-Based Intervention Research Outcomes Trial (C.H.I.R.O.) – found that care for acute low back pain that included chiropractic manipulation had more favorable patient outcomes that family physician-directed care. The patients… Continue Reading »

Exercise and the Brain: Something to Chew On

(From the July 2009 “The Scope” By: Steven T. Tanaka, DC) van Praag H. Exercise and the Brain: Something to Chew On. Trends in Neuroscience May 2009. 32 (5):283-290. ABSTRACT: Evidence is accumulating that exercise has profound benefits for brain function. Physical activity improves learning and memory in humans and animals. Moreover, an active lifestyle might… Continue Reading »

History of Chiropractic’s Fight Against Polio

(From the September 2005 The “G”Note) Wiese G. That They May Walk Again: A History of Chiropractic’s Fight Against Polio. Chiropractic Journal of Australia June 2005; 35(2):42-56. ABSTRACT: Introduction: The first half of the 20th century was plagued by the poliomyelitis epidemic. Franklin Roosevelt was the highest-profile victim and did much to publicise the plight of polio… Continue Reading »

Incorporation of Manual Therapy Directed at the Cervicothoracic Spine

Cleland JA, Flynn TW, Palmer JA. Incorporation of Manual Therapy Directed at the Cervicothoracic Spine in Patients with Lateral Epicondylalgia: A Pilot Clinical Trial. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 2005; 13(3):143-151. ABSTRACT: Recent trends in the use of manual therapy directed at the cervicothoracic spine in patients with lateral epicondylalgia have been observed. However,… Continue Reading »

Insufficient Sleep Undermines Dietary Efforts to Reduce Adiposity

(From the November 2010 “The Scope” – By Steven T. Tanaka, DC) Nedelcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J et al. Insufficient Sleep Undermines Dietary Efforts to Reduce Adiposity. Annals of Internal Medicine October 2010; 153:435-41. ABSTRACT: Background: Sleep loss can modify energy intake and expenditure. Objective: To determine whether sleep restriction attenuates the effect of a… Continue Reading »

Is There an Optimal Patient Stance for Obtaining a Lateral 36” Radiograph

Horton WC, et al. Is There an Optimal Patient Stance for Obtaining a Lateral 36” Radiograph? Spine 15 February 2005; 30(4):427-433. ABSTRACT: Study Design: Scoliosis patients were prospectively x-rayed in three positions with independent analysis. Objectives: To determine if one positioning technique provides superior visualization of critical landmarks (C7, T2, T12, L5-S1) and to determine any… Continue Reading »

Lateral Full Spine Standing Radiographs

(From the November 2009 issue of “The Scope”) Lateral Full Spine Standing Radiographs and Their Use in Biomechanical and Medical Studies By: Steven T. Tanaka, DC. A few researchers have been studying the sagittal or lateral view of the spine. Their primary interest is to find normal values for the alignment, curves, and vertebral positions… Continue Reading »

Medicine’s Magic Bullets

(From the MBGCSS Newsletter – August 2008) Lenzer J. Medicine’s Magic Bullets? Discover July 2008:46-52. COMMENTS: The revealing subtitle to this story in this popular, mass market science magazine: “How do today’s medical “breakthroughs” become tomorrow’s discredited science?” Cited is the 1998 JAMA article that found that more than 100,000 deaths in the U.S. were… Continue Reading »

Machines and Tools of Dr. Clarence S. Gonstead

Amman MJ. The Machines and Tools of Dr. Clarence S. Gonstead. Chiropractic History 2007; 27(2):55-58. ABSTRACT: While important research on the history of chiropractic machines has been published, relatively little attention has been paid to the heterogenous acceptance. Technology’s role in chiropractic split according to the philosophical assertions of straights and mixers; however, a review of… Continue Reading »

Manipulative Treatment vs Conventional Physiotherapy Treatment in Whiplash Injury

(From the March 2005 The “G”Note) Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, et al. Manipulative Treatment vs Conventional Physiotherapy Treatment in Whiplash Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Whiplash & Related Disorders. 2004 3(2):73-90. ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of this clinical trial is to compare the results obtained with manipulative protocol developed by our investigation group with results obtained with… Continue Reading »

Muscle Atrophy and Changes in Spinal Morphology

(From the September 2010 “G”Note – By Steven T. Tanaka, DC) Bevaly DL, Armbrecht G, Richardson CA, et al. Muscle Atrophy and Changes in Spinal Morphology: Is the Lumbar Spine Vulnerable After Prolonged Bed-Rest? Spine 2010; 35:e-pre-publication. ABSTRACT: Study design: Prospective longitudinal study. Objective: To evaluate the effect of bed-rest on the lumbar musculature and soft-tissues.… Continue Reading »

Musculoskeletal Myths. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies

(From the July 2012 issue of “The Scope” – by Steven T. Tanaka, DC) Liebenson C. Musculoskeletal Myths. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies April 2012; 16 (2):165-182. ABSTRACT: This paper discusses a number of common myths in the musculoskeletal pain management and rehabilitation/athletic development fields. The origins or rationale for these beliefs are reviewed.… Continue Reading »

Neuromotor Development in Nocturnal Enuresis

von Gontard A, et al. Neuromotor Development in Nocturnal Enuresis. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology September 2006; 48(9):744-750. ABSTRACT: In children with nocturnal enuresis, a higher rate of minor neurological dysfunction has been found. The aim of this study was to assess timed performance (a measure of motor performance speed) and associated movements using a… Continue Reading »

Paradigm Shift in Manual Therapy

Schmid A, Brunner F, Wright A, et al. Paradigm Shift in Manual Therapy? Evidence for a Central Nervous System Component in the Response to Passive Cervical Joint Mobilisation. Manual Therapy October 2008; 13(5):387-296. ABSTRACT: Segmental neurological modulation, neural hysteresis and biomechanical effects have been proposed as mechanisms underpinning the effects of manual therapy. An increasing number… Continue Reading »

Predictors of a Favorable Outcome in Patients Treated by Chiropractors for Neck Pain

(From the July 2007 The Scope) Rubenstein SM, Knol DL, LeBoeuf-Yde C, et al. Predictors of a Favorable Outcome in Patients Treated by Chiropractors for Neck Pain. Spine  1 June 2008; 33(13):1451-1458. ABSTRACT: Study Design: Prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Objective. To examine which clinical and sociodemographic baseline variables can predict a favorable outcome in subjects with neck… Continue Reading »

Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Discs of the Cervical Spine

D’Antoni AV, Croft AC. Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Discs of the Cervical Spine in Asymptomatic Subjects Using MRI Scans: A Qualitative Systemic Review. Journal of Whiplash & Related Disorders 2006; 5(1):5-13. ABSTRACT: Introduction: Our objective was to review articles that report the prevalence of cervical disc herniation in asymptomatic subjects using MRIs and conduct a qualitative… Continue Reading »

Rates of Fibromyalgia Following Cervical Spine Injury

(From the September 2005 The “G”Note) Rates of Fibromyalgia Following Cervical Spine Injury. Arthritis & Rheumatism March 1997; 40(3):446-452. ABSTRACT: Objective: To study the relationship between cervical spine injury and the development of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods: One hundred two patients with neck injury and 59 patients with leg fractures (control group) were assessed for nonarticular tenderness… Continue Reading »

Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care

Cassidy JD, Boyle E, Côté P, et al. Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care. Spine 15 February 2008; 33(4S):S-176-S-183. ABSTRACT: Study Design: Population-based, case-control and case-crossover study. Objective: To investigate associations between chiropractic visits and vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stroke and to contrast this with primary care physician (PCP) visits and VBA stroke. Summary of Background… Continue Reading »

Reproduction of the Lumbar Lordosis

Andreasen ML et al. Reproduction of the Lumbar Lordosis: A Comparison of Standing Radiographs Versus Supine Magnetic Resonance Imaging Obtained with Straightened Lower Extremities. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics January 2007; 39(1):26-30.  ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigates whether it is possible to reproduce the lumbar lordosis in the upright position during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)… Continue Reading »

Sagittal Plane Alignment of the Spine and Gravity

Legaye J. Sagittal Plane Alignment of the Spine and Gravity: A Radiological and Clinical Evaluation. Acta Orthopaedica Belgica April 2005; 71(2):213-220. In this study, standing full-spine lateral x-rays were taken to measure sacral slope and the pelvic angles compared to the curves and vertebral positions throughout the spine on the lateral or sagittal view. “Analysis… Continue Reading »

Spinal Manipulative Therapy Has an Immediate Effect on Thermal Pain Sensitivity

(By; Steven T. Tanaka, DC – From the February 2010 “The Scope”) Biolosky JE, Bishop MD, Robinson ME, et al. Spinal Manipulative Therapy Has an Immediate Effect on Thermal Pain Sensitivity in People With Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Physical Therapy December 2009; 89(12):1292-1303. ABSTRACT: Background: Current evidence suggests that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is… Continue Reading »

Study of the Sagittal Shape of Spine and Pelvis

Duval-Beaupère G, Schmidt C, Cosson P. A Barycentremetric Study of the Sagittal Shape of Spine and Pelvis: The Conditions Required for an Economic Standing Position. Annals of Biomedical Engineering July 1992; 20(4):451-462. This study used standing full spine radiographs. The following quote concerns standing radiographs. “Biomechanical studies must take into account not only the physical… Continue Reading »

Successful Chiropractic Care of Pediatric Patients With Chronic Constipation: A Case Series and a Review of the Literature

Alcantara J, Mayer DM. The Successful Chiropractic Care of Pediatric Patients With Chronic Constipation: A Case Series and a Review of the Literature. Clinical Chiropractic September 2008; 11(3):138-147. ABSTRACT: Introduction: Chronic constipation is a common condition in the very young and the very old. So much so that approximately $800 million is spent on laxatives in… Continue Reading »

Thimerosal Exposure in Infants and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: An Assessment of Computerized Medical Records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Journal of Neurological Sciences  2008 (in press). ABSTRACT: The study evaluated possible associations between neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) and exposure to mercury (Hg) from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) by examining the automated Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). A total of 278,624 subjects were identified in birth cohorts from 1990–1996 that had received their first oral polio vaccination by 3… Continue Reading »

Vertebra Realignment and Achievement of Arterial Pressure Goal in Hypertensive Patients: a Pilot Study

Journal of Human Hypertension 2 March 2007 (advanced online publication). ABSTRACT: Anatomical abnormalities of the cervical spine at the level of the Atlas vertebra are associated with relative ischaemia of the brainstem circulation and increased blood pressure (BP). Manual correction of this mal-alignment has been associated with reduced arterial pressure. This pilot study tests the hypothesis… Continue Reading »

Waist Circumference and All-Cause Mortality in a Large US Cohort

Archives of Internal Medicine 9 August 2010; 170(15):1291-1301. ABSTRACT: Background: Waist circumference (WC), a measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with higher mortality independent of body mass index (BMI). Less is known about the association between WC and mortality within categories of BMI or for the very high levels of WC that are now common. Methods:… Continue Reading »

What Early Chiropractors “Treated.”

Chiropractic Journal of Australia June 2005;35(2):57-70. ABSTRACT: Chiropractic in Australia today is a registered profession with portal of entry status and deals primarily with musculoskeletal conditions, particularly mechanical low back pain and cervicogenic headaches. This paper attempts to determine what types of cases our pioneer chiropractors managed. It was found that although chiropractors were few in… Continue Reading »